ASIAN

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ORIENTAL

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ITALIAN

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OTHER ETHNIC

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STATISTICS & DATA
(Sector Market Research Facts & Figures)

According to a report produced by the British Hospitality Association (BHA), Britons spent £31 billion on eating out in 2006, compared with some £7 billion in 1981.

ASIAN SECTOR - India, Bangladesh, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Nepal

History

The love of all things spicy was introduced to Britain as long ago as the Crusades, long before Europeans even realised that India existed. Indeed, Britain had three made-up spice mixes that were the equivalent to modern curry powder as long ago as 1310 so that master cooks could choose between 'powder douce', 'powder fort', and 'blanch powder' to liven up their creations.
By 1612 when the English merchants were enjoying their first meal in Surat, English cuisine was already redolent with cumin, caraway, ginger, pepper, cinnamon, cloves and nutmeg with spices available to all bu the poor, since breaking the Arab monopoly.
The 'heat' of ancient Indian cuisine came from black pepper, cardamom and cumin and it was the Portuguese in 1501 who first introduced chilli which is the hallmark of ethnic cuisine today.

From 16th century onwards, travellers to India often returned to Britain accompanied by their Indian servants and thus started the first trickle of immigration. Such was the importance of India to Britain throughout 17th and 18th centuries that it was inevitable that returning merchants and soldiers would wish to recreate the spicy foods they enjoyed on their travels and commercial curry powder was featured in many cookery books from the 1780's onwards.

Immigration

People from the Indian sub-continent have been present in Britain on a regular basis since 18th century as servents and as travelling wealthy princes but were recorded in Scotland in 'considerable numbers' as long before as 1540. The main boom came in the 1950s with higher wages in British industry and cheaper travel from India. The main surge of Pakistani immigration was destined for the textile mills of West Yorkshire and Lancashire and engineering in the Midlands, boosted by the Voucher Scheme of 1962. Bangladeshis originally came to Britain as Bengalis - lascars for the East Indian Company - and the startling fact is that the large majority come from the same region - Sylhet - with 80% being Muslim. By 2001 there were 1,053,411 Indians ; 747,285 Pakistanis ; and 283,063 Bangladeshis in Britain with an estimated growth by 2050 of 41% for Indians, 89% Pakistanis and 125% Bangladeshis. The result of this for Britain is not only a very rich multi-cultural society occupying many professions but also the growth of an unrivalled catering and restaurant industry.

Seventy eight per cent of Black Africans and 61 per cent of Black Caribbeans live in London. More than half of the Bangladeshi group (54 per cent) also live in London. Other ethnic minority groups are more dispersed. Only 19 per cent of Pakistanis reside in London, while 21 per cent live in the West Midlands, 20 per cent in Yorkshire and the Humber, and 16 per cent in the North West.

Number of 'Indian' Restaurants in UK

Year

No. of restaurants

1960

500

1970

1200

1980

3000

1990

5100

1996

7300

1997

7600

2000

7940

2001

8432 (24% takeaway)

2004

8750

2007

9350(est)

2009

9500

2011

9400

Some 65% of restaurants are actually owned and run by Bangladeshis, most restaurants being south of the Midlands. Other cities such as Bradford, Manchester and Glasgow are mainly Pakistani, Kashmiri or Punjabi giving variations in style. Numbers have improved again after a brief period of plateauing as quality has improved and family-style units have closed. It was estimated that 170 million meals were served in 1997/8.

The annual turnover of the Indian restaurant industry including drink is approx £3bn p.a. giving a total Indian Food & Drink sector annual turnover of overx £3.5bn.

Location of Restaurants

Area

No.

No 2002

UK population

London/South East

45.6%

45.9%

30.5%

South West

6.5%

6.1%

8.3%

East Anglia

2.5%

2.4%

3.6%

Midlands

16.4%

15.9%

16.2%

Yorks

6.7%

6.8%

8.6%

North West

8.4%

9.7%

11.0%

North

3.0%

2.8%

5.3%

Wales

3.4%

3.3%

5.0%

Scotland

6.6%

6.4%

8.8%

N.Ireland

0.7%

0.61%

2.7%

There has been a marked growth in the number of covers per restaurant in the past five years such that actual numbers have been only growing at around 2% p.a. but total available covers over 10% p.a. The year 2000-2001 onwards, however, saw renewed growth in numbers.

The Indian restaurant sector has been the success story of the second half of the last century, growing from near nothing to one of the biggest industries in Britain employing over 60,000 people.

Most Popular Dishes

Dish

%

Chicken Tikka Masala

14.2

Chicken Jalfrezi

7.2

Chicken Korma

7.0

Meat Madras

6.5

Chicken Dhansak

6.0

Rogan Josh

5.0

Tandoori Chicken

4.5

Chicken Tikka

4.0

Lamb Pasanda

3.5

Chicken Makhani

3.0

In 2010 the eating out market in UK was ££33.04 pence per person per week (a a fall in real terms 2007-2010 of 5.20%) as compared with the total beer market of £6.19 pppw.
Sales of rice pasta and noodles in 2009 rose 3.3% compared with 2007.

The total market for ethnic foods in UK in 2009 was £1.64bn an increase of 10% on previous year.

In 2006 the estimated value of the retail Indian food market stood at £493.8 million. (Mintel)
UK Indian foods market will grow by an estimated 6% to reach a value of £524.6 million at current prices by 2011.(Mintel)

ORIENTAL Chinese, Thai, Japanese, South Korean, Singaporean, Indonesian, Malaysian, Vietnamese

HISTORY
Historically, the Orient has always been a place of mystery to people in the West with a culture totally unlike theirs involving different values and motivations.Despite the inability (or lack of effort) to often understand the Oriental mind, the West has long seen it as a fertile ground for trade and religious conversion in an outward direction and the discovery of rare herbs, spices, dues, fabrics and fragrances from an inward viewpoint. Having no colonial connection with China or Japan, we have have had to rely, in most part, on experiences with Hong Kong and its people for insight until recent years when long haul business and tourism became commonplace.

The first Chinese immigration into Britain began over 100 years ago, but up until the end of the Second World War in 1945, ther were fewer than 500 Chinese immigrants in this country. London's first Chinese restaurant opened in 1908 but it was not until the influence of American servicemen and returning British soldiers after the war that dmeand really began to appear.

The first wave of Chinese arrived in the second half of the 19th century after China's defeat in the Opium Wars and were mainly seamen. A second wave came in the 1950's with the main flow after the voucher system was introduced in 1962.

The first Japanese restaurant in Britain title is claimed by an establishment in Barrow-in-Furness. Dating from the early 1900s it was opened to cater to the Japanese seamen standing by the Japanese warships being built in the town. The length of its operations certainly covered several years but unfortunately it is no longer in business.

Despite its present popularity, the Thai phenomenon did not appear until the end of the 1960's and interest has grown hugely in the past thirsty years as tourism has grown. The advent of Japanese restaurants is even more recent, dating from the early 1970's

Oriental Population in Britain

Country

Number

%

China

156,351

66.4

Japan

24,482

10.4

Phillipines

17,634

7.5

Mauritius

11,352

4.8

Malaysia

9,614

4.1

Vietnam

9,561

4.0

Thailand

4,882

2.1

Singapore

1,122

0.4

Seychelles

766

0.3

Other

79,413

33.6

Top Chinese Restaurant Favourites

1

Crispy Duck

2

Sizzling Cantonese Beef

3

Dim Sum

4

Szechuan Prawns

5

Chilli Beef

6

Chicken with Cashew Nuts

7

Lemon Chicken

8

Beef in Oyster Sauce

9

Prawns in Black Bean Sauce

10

Spare Ribs

Number of restaurants

Cuisine style

Number

Chinese

3500 - London & South East 47.3%

Chinese + Takeaway

7500

Thai

750 - London 37%, Home Counties 22%, Scotland/Wales 6%

Japanese

370 - London 70%, Home Counties 6%, Scotland/Wales 4%

Indo/Malaysian/Sing

150

Vietnamese

50

Korean

50

Other Oriental

117

Top Chinese Takeaway Dishes

1

Chow Mien

2

Beef in Oyster Sauce

3

Chicken with Cashew Nuts

4

Sweet & Sour Pork

5

Sweet & Sour Prawns

2014 - There are now estimated to be 2000 Thai restaurants in UK with Trip Advisor listing 359 in London alone.

Percentage in London & South East

Cuisine

Percentage

Chinese

47.3

Thai

67.4

Japanese

82.6

Indo/Malaysian

70.9

Vietnamese

76.9

Korean

93.5

ITALIAN

HISTORY

Early Italian history begins with the break-up of the Empire of Crete in 1200 B.C.. Its people started to wander around the eastern mediterranean, sacking and looting at will and setting up cities in Greece and Asia Minor. One of the groups became the sinister and mysterious Etruscans who settled in Umbria from Southern Anatolia and created an urban, oligarchic life in central Italy when Athens was still at its height. The Etruscans gained widespread influence over Tuscany, Umbria, Rome and Capua and the Romans did not combine to drive the invader out until 509 B.C., nineteen years before Marathon. The Romans took much from the architectural, gladiatorial and even financial teachings of the Etruscans and later absorbed the theatre and arts of the Greeks who followed the Etruscans but from the south of Italy and Sicily.

Rome was supposedly founded around 800 B.C. but had to deal first with the Etruscans then the Gallic tribesmen from the north before establishing an ascendancy and capturing Naples in 326 B.C. Then followed Carthage in 264-241 B.C. then Sicily and even Spain. Steadily Roman influence expanded to create the magnificent Roman Empire whilst at home, the kitchens of the nobility were turned over to knowledgeable Greek slaves who became, in effect, the first professional chefs. Interest in food and drink in Rome rose to unprecendented levels, spurred on by the knowledge imported from Greece and the cultures of the conquered nations and all the culinary wonders the known world had to offer poured into Rome. It is unsurprising, therefore, that despite the fall the the Empire, all things Roman continued to influence countries throughout the world, especially their food, which had a profound influence on French cuisine and on other cuisines around the world even today.

In 1945 Gaggia altered the espresso machine to create a high pressure extraction that produced a thick layer of crema. By 1946 cappuccino had been christened for its resemblance to the colour of the robes of the Capuchin monks. The unique selling point of the classic café had arrived

Restaurant history in UK
The Italian restaurant sector in Britain has been in existance for much of the 20th century with early pioneering restaurants such as Ristorante Italiano in Curzon Street which opened in 1936. In 1990 restaurant patronage was estimated at 14% for Italian as against 27% Indian, 19% Chinese and 41% British but in the past 10years the popularity of British restaurants has declined and all the others grown. Largest areas of concentration of restaurants apart from London are Scotland, Surrey and Sussex with Yorkshire having double the number of Lancashire. Essex is the best served of the Home Counties and Sussex is a popular location for Italian restaurants.

The Italian community in London dates back to the early nineteenth century. These were mainly educated political refugees and settled around Clerkenwell and Holborn in London. By 1881 there were 3500 and by 1901 the number had risen dramatically to 11,000.

Most Popular forms of pasta

1

Spaghetti

2

Twists

3

Other shapes

4

Lasagna

5

Shells

6

Tagliatelle

7

Noodles

8

Macaroni

9

Tortellini

10

Canelloni

The number of Italian restaurants in UK remained fairly static at around 3800 throughout the early nineties, not including pizza takeaways but the number has now grown to over 4260 (2002) with many new openings, often using non Italians as staff, mainly Spanish and Portuguese. Turnover is estimated at almost £1.1 billion p.a.(2002)
The number of Italian restaurants (excluding takeaway pizza outlets) in 2005 is around 4700 representing a 10% growth on 2002. Quality has also improved with four London restaurants currently holding a Michelin star.

2006 : £2.4 bn is spent on pizza in UK - £1.252 bn in restaurants, £547m on delivery and £640m retail. (TNS Worldpanel) and the number of restaurants has gone well over the 5000 level.

Worth £721 million in 2008, the pizza market is set to continue to grow by over 5% in 2009, with frozen pizza being slightly more important than chilled.

2009 (Mintel) : The retail market Pasta is now £811m, Rice £388m and Noodles £213m.

OTHER ETHNIC CUISINES Mexican,Greek, Caribbean, Tex/Mex, Creole/Cajun,Spanish, Turkish, Latin, Lebanese, US Theme, Portuguese

HISTORY

Agriculture began in Mexico around 7000 B.C. at roughly the same time as the Middle East and, when the Conquistadores arrived in the area in 1519, they discovered many items completely unknown to them from Aztec cuisine, such as avocados, sweet potatoes, pineapple, papaya, chocolate, vanilla, pumpkin, squash, peanuts, cashews, corn, beans, chillies, tomatoes and turkeys. Indeed Montezuma's court offered over 1,000 dishes at a banquet. Tex Mex is a modern version of traditional Mexican cuisine mixed with Texan, based around such staples as the tortilla, enchiladas, tacos and tostados, introducing Chilli con Carne, Burritos, Fajitas and Chimichangas amongst others.

Creole and Cajun cuisines derive from the same area, that is the Missippi Delta around Louisiana and are very much centred around the use of fresh, local produce. The Creoles are the descendants of 17th century European settlers who came to the area, while the Cajuns were French-Canadians who dashed southwards when the British became dominant in Canada. Creole food, initially operating on French flair, became influenced by the Spanish love of strong seasonings and both Cajun and Creole absorbed the influence of the African slaves bringing okra, black-eyed peas and beans. Gumbo, possibly the most famous dish of the region, was a French act of nostalgia for Bouillabaisse, using local ingredients.

The connection with the Caribbean is that the area was originally settled by the peaceful Arawaks and war-like Caribs from South America, bringing allspice, cassava and chillies. The colonial influence followed after Colombus with input from the British, French, Spanish and Dutch, then African slaves and finally, Asians, especially in Trinidad.

The other cuisines featured in this section - Spanish, Greek, Turkish, Lebanese, Portuguese - have culinary histories dating back to pre-history as empires have risen and fallen and wars have merged cultures. The one thing they all have in common is the love of spice and seasonings adapted in their own style.

Other Ethnic Restaurants in UK 2008

Tex-Mex

105

Mexican

205

Creole/Cajun

45

Caribbean

140

Spanish

300

Greek

349

Turkish

111

Portuguese

 60

Lebanese

 50

South American

45

Others

100

5% of London's population (350,000) come from India, 2.5% from Pakistan and Bangladesh, 4.4% from the Caribbean, 4% from Ireland and 1% China/Hong Kong. There are 37 ethnic groupings in London of more than 10,000 people each.

2005 : One in ten of all adults eat Mexican food regularly, compares to 49% who regularly eat Chinese food and 39% who eat Indian food on a regular basis.

2010 Marked growth in Caribbean and Polish food sales.